All that remains of the city founded by Antiochus II Theos in 263 B.C.E. are weatherworn columns and foundations that litter the landscape beside the Lycos River 5 km (3 miles) from the city of Denizli. Also among the ruins is a large Roman bath, which should not be missed.
See the room where the founder of the Republic of Turkey stayed when he visited Denizli in this classic Denizli-style house. It also houses some wonderful examples of life as it was in the city during Ottoman times, with wax figures in authentic garb, weapons and one room devoted to what a typical Denizli family looked like 40 years ago.
The antique city of Hierapolis had a huge Roman bath complex, which included a library and gymnasium and stands to this day. Since 1984, the former baths have been used to house the Hierapolis Archaeology Museum. Works of art and artefacts from the excavations at Hierapolis are on display alongside finds from Laodicea, Colossae, Tripolis, Attuda, and other towns of the Lycus Valley.
This is a UNESCO World Heritage site, and once you set foot in the ruins of the ancient city, you will quickly understand why. Great baths, temples, a theatre, pools, gates, and a necropolis are just some of the ruins located on a site that is set over hot springs that have been used as a spa since the 2nd century B.C.E. In fact, some of the antique pools are still open to bathing in the summer months, which is a testament to the engineering prowess of the Phrygians. Another example of this ingenuity is to be found in the form of a relief drawing on the sarcophagus of Marcus Arelieus Ammianos depicting a water-powered sawmill, the earliest known machine with a crank and connecting rod.
A vast source of water heated by lava lies deep within the earth beneath Pamukkale. The heated water dissolves pure white calcium deposits and, carrying it to the earth's surface, bursts forth and runs down a steep hillside. Cooling in the open air, the calcium precipitates from the water, adheres to the soil, and forms white calcium "cascades" frozen in stone called travertines. These remarkable structures remain one of the region’s primary attractions and have attracted visitors since time immemorial.
This is another ancient Phrygian city, on the Lycus River, about which virtually nothing is known, as it has never been excavated. However there is an interesting legend surrounding the site in which the Archangel Michael appeared and saved an Orthodox church from being destroyed by a stream pagans had diverted for this purpose.