This imposing 13th century structure was built from smooth pre-cut rock and features impressive stone carvings on its main doors and two towering minarets decorated with fine tile work. After being damaged during a battle, it was used as a cannon foundry and then a barracks during the reign of Sultan Murat IV. In 1942, it was converted into a museum and remains open to visitors to this day.
Famous for its minaret, which features intricate motifs inlaid between weaving bands of tiles in relief, this Madrasa was built in the 14th century and is the last example of a closed-courtyard Madrasa. Today it houses Erzurum's Turkish-Islamic Arts & Ethnography Museum which, in addition to an extensive collection artefacts, particularly from the Urartian Empire, features a striking central dome lined with faceted stalactite work, as well as a quiet and leafy central courtyard garden.
Set in the city centre, this bazaar is renowned for its fine jewellery and decorative objects made out of Oltu Stone, also known as black amber, a stone that comes from the nearby town of Oltu. The stone is known for its characteristic softness, making it easy to carve; however, it begins to harden after prolonged exposure to oxygen. Islamic prayer beads made from Oltu Stone are much prized throughout Turkey.
Located six km (3.7 miles) from modern-day Erzurum this 5th century Byzantine citadel is famous its clock tower, which was built in the 12th century by a noted ruler of the Saltuklu Dynasty, Muzaffer Gazi Bin Ebu’l Kasim. Also worth seeing are the citadel's keep and four gates, which bear various medieval inscriptions and reliefs attesting to its importance as a fortress along the Silk Road.
This breathtaking 48-mt (157 foot) waterfall located next to Lake Tortum, 100 km (62 miles) north of Erzurum, is definitely worth the one-hour drive. Tortum Lake was formed as the result of a massive landslide, which blocked the valley through which the Tortum River flowed.